Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland This is earth in it´s making. [21][22] On 20 April 2010, Icelandic President Ólafur Grímsson said "the time for Katla to erupt is coming close...we [Iceland] have prepared...it is high time for European governments and airline authorities all over the world to start planning for the eventual Katla eruption". The volcano has erupted relatively frequently since the Last Glacial Period, most recently in 2010,[4][5] when, although relatively small for a volcanic eruption, it caused enormous disruption to air travel across western and northern Europe for a week. Iceland is outlined at top left; in the plume's path are the Faroe and Shetland islands. 1 2 3. Updates? Iceland Volcano Tour to Eyjafjallajökull. Be the first to answer this question. [16] The volcano continued to have several earthquakes daily, with volcanologists watching the volcano closely. The outcome was a large plume of volcanic ash and gas which formed and spread out across the area, drifting south-east towards the Faroe Islands, northern Scotland, and Norway (Loughlin). Expanding gases from the rapid vaporization of ice started a series of moderate phreatomagmatic explosions (which result from the contact of water and magma) that sent a plume of steam and ash almost 7 miles (11 km) into the atmosphere. In early 1823, the nearby volcano Katla under the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap erupted and at the same time steam columns were seen on the summit of Eyjafjallajökull. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Nearly all flights in Europe and across the Atlantic Ocean were suspended for almost a week, ... an ash plume is formed of many tiny particles of sediment. Eyjafjallajökull is an Icelandic volcano that now is dormant meaning it is not active but still able to erupt again. Its unusual and difficult to pronounce name comes from the combination of various words with different meanings. The name probably refers to the close by archipelago of Vestmannaeyjar. How was Eyjafjallajökull formed? Be the first to answer! The main outlet glaciers are to the north: Gígjökull, flowing into Lónið, and Steinholtsjökull, flowing into Steinholtslón. Bardon Hill rocks formed from a volcano in Precambrian times, about 570 million years ago. Eyjafjallajökull actually lies away from the rift in the earth that other Icelandic volcanoes spring from and which is ultimately responsible for the island's existence. Its nearest active neighbours are Katla, to the northeast, and Eldfell, on Heimaey, to the southwest. Eyjafjallajökull during eruption in 2010. Eyjafjallajokull is a volcano that is entirely covered by an ice cap. Being so small gives you a change of getting close to it. Because it moved so slowly I could get very close to its hot edge. Fissure-fed lava flows occur on both the E and W flanks, but are more prominent on the western side. Its unusual and difficult to pronounce name comes from the combination of various words with different meanings. Eyjafjallajökull volcano is an ice-cap covered stratovolcano located to the north of Skógar (Skogar) and to the west of Mýrdalsjökull (Myrdalsjokull) glacier in southern Iceland. The ice cap covers the caldera of a volcano with a summit elevation of 1,651 metres (5,417 ft). Information came trickling in throughout the (sleepless) night, but come daylight a better picture formed of what was going on. About Eyjafjallajokull Glacier. From the end of June until the beginning of August 1822, another sequence of explosive eruptions followed. Iceland is formed (still being formed) by the Eurasian plate drifting east and the American plate drifting west in the gap in between magma comes to the surface forming volcanoes, Iceland is also located on a hot-spot, this is a place on the earth were a volcano comes up that is of a different kind. Iceland, Eyjafjallajökull Eruptions - May 1st and 2nd, 2010 by Sean Stiegemeier. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. This first eruption, in the form of a fissure vent, did not occur under the glacier and was smaller in scale than had been expected by some geologists. It was about 800,000 years ago when the Eyjafjallajökull volcano was formed. Eyjafjallajökull is an icecap covered stratovolcano rising to an elevation of 1666 m.a.s.l. The sources describe heavy ash fall in the area around the volcano, especially to the south and west.[9]. On March 21, fountains of lava began exiting through a 0.3-mile- (500-metre-) long vent in the ice-free Fimmvörduháls Pass, which separates the Eyjafjallajökull glacier from the larger glacier Mýrdalsjökull to the east. Eyjafjallajökull (also known as Eyjafjöll) is located west of Katla volcano. It is dark grey in colour, small-grained and intermediate rock containing about 28–40% silicon dioxide. Eyjafjallajökull is a basalt/andesite stratovolcano (composite volcano) associated with the divergent Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which separates the North American and Eurasian plates. The ice-cap atop Eyjafjallajökull . The volcanic rocks extracted from the quarry are andesite. Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull Volcano burst into life for the first time in 190 years on March 20, 2010. About 45 people in Langidalur valley north of the Eyjafjallajökull glacier were isolated by the eruption, and 800 people were evacuated. It sits between one of the largest cascades in Iceland, Skógafoss Waterfall, and Thórsmörk (Þórsmörk), a mountain ridge with a deep valley beloved by hikers from all over the world. On April 14, lava from new fissures surfaced beneath the crater of the glacier-covered summit. The Volcano was featured in the 2013 movie, The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, where Walter had to flee from an eruption after pursuing photographer Sean O'Connell to Iceland. 'island mountain's glacier')[3] is one of the smaller ice caps of Iceland, north of Skógar and west of Mýrdalsjökull. It consists of an elongated ice-covered stratovolcano with a 2.5-km-wide summit caldera. On 14 April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull resumed erupting after a brief pause, this time from the top crater in the centre of the glacier, causing jökulhlaup (meltwater floods) to rush down the nearby rivers, and requiring 800 people to be evacuated. Ash clouds pose great danger to aircraft and can lead to engine failure. The period from August to December 1822 seemed quieter, but farmers attributed the death of cattle and sheep in the Eyjafjörður area to poisoning from this eruption, which modern analysis identifies as fluoride poisoning. The cause of Eyjafjallajökull's explosive eruption seemed to be the meeting of one body of magma, made up mostly of the common volcanic rock basalt, with another type of … Katla, two active volcanoes. In these three cases the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano occurred simultaneously with or was shortly followed by the eruption of Katla, a volcano located some 15.5 miles (25 km) to the east. About 30 minutes played in 18 second. When the eruption started on the Fimmvörðuháls hiking trail it formed two new volcanic craters which were named Magmi and Móði. The Eyjafjallajökull volcano erupted in 920, 1612 and again from 1821 to 1823 when it caused a glacial lake outburst flood (or jökulhlaup). Eyjafjallajökull consists of a volcano completely covered by an ice cap. A second layer poured out over the top. When the volcano erupted, all the melted ice had to go somewhere. Over time, the earthquakes rose towards the surface, and land near the volcano rose at least 40 millimeters (2 inches)—both indications that magma was moving underneath the volcano. These are the first in a series of interferograms anticipated to be formed showing the course of the eruption. No people died in the Eyjafjallajökull eruptions. e) What is Tephra and how does it form? The latter eruption continued intermittently for nearly 14 months. Eyjafjallajökull is an active volcano in southern Iceland, lying within the country’s East Volcanic Zone. Eyjafjallajökull eruption 2010 (Iceland): ash plume from the subglacial eruption (16 Images) Eyjafjallajökull eruption 2010 (Iceland): strombolian activity … Its highest point rises to 5,466 feet (1,666 metres) above sea level. Here lava is flowing into the longer Hvannárgil just an hour after it going down the canyon. He serves currently as the editor of Earth and life sciences, covering climatology, geology, zoology, and other topics that relate to... What is the highest mountain range in South America? The word is a compound of three different words. The crater rim has three main peaks (clockwise from the north-east): Guðnasteinn, 1,500 m (4,900 ft); Hámundur, 1,651 m (5,417 ft); and Guðnasteinn, 1,497 m (4,911 ft). [7], The stratovolcano, whose vents follow an east–west trend, is composed of basalt to andesite lavas. It is part of a chain of volcanoes stretching across Iceland. Additional localised disruption continued into May 2010.
It is located near the south shore between Mt. The word is a compound of three different words. The name Eyjafjöll is made up of the words eyja (genitive plural of ey, meaning eyot or island), and the plural word fjöll, meaning fells or mountains, and together literally means: "the mountains of the islands".

The Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland is known to everyone because of its most recent eruption in the year 2010 that disrupted the air traffic in entire Europe. Exclusively at ABC, these hand-formed ceramics by Icelandic artist Bjarni Sigurdsson are finished in a natural glaze made from the volcanic ashes of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Omissions? Iceland's favorite hiking trail over the mountain pass Fimmvörðuháls leading into the lower part of the Highlands passes between Eyjafjallajökull glacier and Mýrdalsjökull glacier. The volcano is thought to be related to Katla geologically, in that eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull have generally been followed by eruptions of Katla. The plume was driven southeast, across the North Atlantic Ocean to northern Europe, by the prevailing winds. Eyjafjallajökull volcano represents something bigger. The eruption is thought to have begun on 20 March 2010, about 8 km (5 mi) east of the top crater of the volcano, on Fimmvörðuháls, the high neck between Eyjafjallajökull and the neighbouring icecap, Mýrdalsjökull. [15] On 23 May 2010, the London Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre declared the eruption to have stopped, but stated that they were continuing to monitor the volcano. Hekla and Mt. Here are some facts about Eyjafjallajokull. Lace your climbing boots tight, because this quiz will test whether you can conquer the highest peaks of knowledge. On April 14th 2010 the top crater in the center of the glacier of Eyjafjallajökull started erupting. [24], Icelandic Post issued three special stamps in 2010 for the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano. [9] Notably, the ash released from the eruption contained a large fraction of fluoride, which in high doses may harm the bone structure of cattle, horses, sheep and humans. Also in response to Eyjafjallajökull's impact on air travel, ICAO formed the International Volcanic Ash Task Force (IVATF) in May 2010, charging it to examine how best to define hazardous airspace and manage aviation risk. Eyjafjallajökull volcano is in good company. Eyjafjallajökull broke out in the years 920 and 1612. The ice-cap atop Eyjafjallajökull . Most of us know the name Eyjafjallajökull for exactly this reason. Eyjafjallajökull (also known as Eyjafjöll) is located west of Katla volcano. The heat from the lava quickly melted and vaporized the glacier ice above. It was estimated to be ten to twenty times larger than the previous one in Fimmvörðuháls. Its known for it's eruption of 2010 releasing great amounts of ash plume fogging greatly halted air travel around almost all of Iceland. Corrections? Eyjafjallajökull Volcano is located in South Iceland, about 100 miles (160 km) from Reykjavik. After that event the sequence of eruptions continued on a more subdued level until June 1822. Then, you will start hiking through the majestic canyons as you go up higher on Thorsmork, then the two craters formed during 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption will appear in front of you. (The sources do not indicate the exact date.).[10]. Different parts of the name mean […] Gradual inflation of magma chambers often precedes eruptions at highly active volcanoes. So, as of right now, the latest is that a 1km fissure (crack in the ground) has opened up on the ridge between Eyjafjallajökull and Mýrdalsjökull, which is producing lava flows in both directions away from it. Answer. It can be timed because the seismometers at Kirkjubæjarklaustur monitored the movement. During eruptions, rapid deflation occurs as magma flows out and pressure is reduced. Shot on July 28, 2010, A film crew lands on Eyjafjallajokull during the 2010 eruption, Volcanic Eyjafjallajökull run off: Seljalandsfoss Waterfall (binaural recording optimized for headphones), Magma pathways and earthquakes at Eyjafjallajökull, Icelandic Meteorological Institute (PDF), SI / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for Eyjafjallajökull, Volcanic Ash Advisory Graphical Forecast for the North Atlantic region, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eyjafjallajökull&oldid=991825424, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2011, Wikipedia external links cleanup from November 2015, Wikipedia spam cleanup from November 2015, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 00:50. [12] In March 2010, almost three thousand small earthquakes were detected near the volcano, all having a depth of 7–10 kilometres (4 1⁄2–6 miles). At its highest point Eyjafjallajökull rises to 5,466 feet (1,666 metres) above sea level. Related Questions. The 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull were volcanic events at Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland which, although relatively small for volcanic eruptions, caused enormous disruption to air travel across western and northern Europe over an initial period of six days in April 2010. When about 15,000,000 cubic metres (530,000,000 cubic feet) of material hit the glacier a massive amount of air, ice, and water began to move out from under the glacier into the lagoon at the foot of the glacier.[6]. Eyjafjallajökull consists of a volcano completely covered by an ice cap. Eyjafjallajökull on TV First, Eyja which means islands, but that refers to the Vestmannaeyjar Islands just off Iceland‘s coast. It consists of an elongated ice-covered stratovolcano with a 2.5-km-wide summit caldera. Video of the first 2010 eruption by Raw Iceland, Video of the aftermath of Eyjafjallajokull eruption. Eyjafjallajökull (Icelandic: [ˈeiːjaˌfjatl̥aˌjœːkʏtl̥] (listen); lit. Eyjafjallajökull volcano, also called Eyjafjallajökull, Eyjafjalla volcano, Eyjafjöll, or Eyjafjalla Glacier volcano, subglacial volcano, southern Iceland, lying within the country’s East Volcanic Zone. Test shows how ash affects a jet engine. 1, was closed between Skógar and the crossroads to Gunnarsholt east of Hella. When crushed, ... A simple schematic model of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano summit, crater and ash plume. Eyjafjallajökull is one of the few stratovolcanoes found in Iceland. Eyjafjallajökull’s height is 1,651 meters (5,417 feet). Stratovolcanoes are typically the most destructive of volcanoes, built of layer and layers of lava, reinforced by solid dikes that cut across the layers, strengthening the edifice like Nature's re-bar. On 16 January 1967 at 13:47:55 there was an explosion on the glacier. Height 3.35 in ceramic Eyjafjallajökull is sometimes referred to by the numeronym "E15". It’s one of several volcanoes that stretch along the fault lines of the tectonic plates. It did not flood that much: most of it went into rivers, but if it had flooded down the farm valleys it could have swept away all the farms in the valley. Fimmvorduhals eruption. Plume from Eyjafjallajökull volcano (tan streak) moving southeast over the North Atlantic Ocean, April 15, 2010. It formed as the lava was rapidly quenched by its interaction with the ice, and ensuing meltwater. [17] On 8 July 2011 there was a jökulhlaup that destroyed a bridge on the Ring Road and caused cracks to appear on Katla's glacier. The south face of the mountain was once part of Iceland's coastline, from which, over thousands of years, the sea has retreated some 5 km (3 mi). The Eyjafjallajökull volcano last erupted on 14 April 2010 in Iceland. summit, a crater lake has formed, with a scoria rim, ... Eyjafjallajökull volcano is adjacent to Katla, with only three inferred eruptions in the same time interval. The word jökull, meaning glacier or ice cap, is a cognate with the Middle English word ikel surviving in the -icle of English icicle. NOW 50% OFF! Two distinct lava morphologies had formed on the northern slopes. White volcanic gases escape from the vent and erupting lava, while a steam plume rises where the hot lava meets snow. The main outlet glaciers are to the north: Gígjökull, flowing into Lónið, and Steinholtsjökull, flowing into Steinholtslón. However, the people of Iceland were not concerned about the ash clouds: they were more concerned about flooding. Eyjafjallajökull is a basalt/andesite stratovolcano (composite volcano) associated with the divergent Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which separates the North American and Eurasian plates. It sits close to the fourth greatest, Mýrdalsjökull, which also conceals another notorious volcano, this one called Katla. The ice-cap that covers Eyjafjallajökull takes up about 100 square kilometers. The Giant’s Causeway formed between 50 and 60 million years ago, when the region that now sits on the Antrim coastline was subject to intense volcanic activity. The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull goes far beyond the lava flow, it gave the opportunity for changes in aviation regulation and advances in volcanic science. Fimmvorduhals eruption. Fissure-fed lava flows occur on both the E and W flanks, but are more prominent on the western side. Eyjafjallajökull is Iceland's famous volcano with the long name that can be very difficult to pronounce. [8] However, fissure vents occur on both (mainly the west) sides of the volcano.[8]. The longer lava field extends of 1.6 miles (2.7 km). When the eruption started on the Fimmvörðuháls hiking trail it formed two new volcanic craters which were named Magmi and Móði. Its name is derived from an Icelandic phrase meaning “the island’s mountain glacier,” and the volcano itself lies beneath Eyjafjallajökull (Eyjafjalla Glacier). The craters can be seen when hiking the Fimmvörðuháls trail as well as the lava field from the eruption called, Goðahraun. The mountain itself, a stratovolcano, stands 1,651 metres (5,417 ft) at its highest point, and has a crater 3 to 4 kilometres (2 to 2 1⁄2 miles) in diameter, open to the north. Situated in the south west of Iceland, Eyjafjallajokull is an 800,000 year old volcano with an almost unpronounceable name that was thrust into the limelight when it erupted in 2010… causing an ash cloud that grounded aviation in the northern hemisphere.It is reckoned to be the oldest active strato volcano on the island. [19], Eyjafjallajökull lies 25 km (15 1⁄2 mi) west of another subglacial volcano, Katla, under the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap, which is much more active and known for its powerful subglacial eruptions and its large magma chamber. On 26 February 2010, unusual seismic activity along with rapid expansion of the Earth's crust was registered by the Meteorological Institute of Iceland. Iceland’s highway No. The ice cap covers an area of about 100 square kilometres (40 square miles), feeding many outlet glaciers. https://www.britannica.com/place/Eyjafjallajokull-volcano, NASA - Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland, Global Volcanism Program - Eyjafjallajökull, Eyjafjallajökull volcano - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). It is located on the south coast of the island of Iceland, about 3km inland. Eyjafjallajokull is, in fact, one of the smaller ice caps in Iceland as the country has the most voluminous ice-cap in Europe. Eyjafjallajökull broke out in the years 920 and 1612. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Also, the media continues to confuse the issue Eyjafjallajökull’s height is 1,651 meters (5,417 feet). Eyjafjallajökull, English Eyjafjalla Glacier, glacier, southern Iceland.The former western extension of Mýrdalsjökull (Mýrdals Glacier), from which it is now separated by the small ice-free Fimmvörduháls Pass, Eyjafjallajökull covers an area of about 40 square miles (100 square km). The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull was presaged by a series of earthquakes starting in early March. Volcanologists use samples from Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland to ... have reproduced in the laboratory the process through which the causeway’s 40,000 near-perfect hexagonal columns were formed. A literal part-by-part translation of Eyjafjallajökull would thus be "Islands' Mountains' ice cap". Its eruption in 2010 interfered with European and transatlantic flights for two weeks. The name Eyjafjallajökull is derived from an Icelandic phrase meaning … [14] The eruptions also created electrical storms. Eyjafjallajökull feeds Seljalandsfoss waterfall. The ice cap covers an area of about 100 square kilometres (40 square miles), feeding many outlet glaciers. It was about 800,000 years ago when the Eyjafjallajökull volcano was formed. The ice-cap that covers Eyjafjallajökull takes up about 100 square kilometers. No people died in the Eyjafjallajökull eruptions. The area between the mountain and the present coast is a relatively flat strand, 2–5 km (1–3 mi) wide, called Eyjafjöll. Register to get answer. It has been an active volcano since many decades. Eyjafjallajökull, lying in south-west of Iceland, is a volcano covered by an ice cap. Then, fjalla which means mountains, and last jökull, which means glacier. It accounts for 90 percent of the lava which poured out under Gígjökull. c) Describe the Lava flow produced by the eruption. The edge of the lava flow very slowly moved outward from the main lava flow. The ice cap of Eyjafjallajokull covers an area of 100 square kilometers. In which country are the Southern Alps located? 2.4. Iceland's favorite hiking trail Fimmvörðuháls. The eruption also caused some small and medium glacier runs and flooding in nearby rivers Markarfljót and Holtsá. If this age estimate is accurate, Eyjafjallajökull is one of the oldest active volcanoes in Iceland. The eruptive phase started on 19 and 20 December 1821 by a series of explosive eruptions and continued over the next several days. Eyjafjallajökull Volcano is located in South Iceland, about 100 miles (160 km) from Reykjavik. Eyjafjallajokull is a volcano that is entirely covered by an ice cap. On the super jeep ride, you will traverse the gravel road and push deeper into the valley. a) When did the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull begin and how long did the eruption last? Here are some facts about Eyjafjallajokull. Eyjafjallajökull (pronounced Eh-ya-fyat-la-yuh-cullt-k) formed approximately 800,000 years ago, so Eyjafjallajökull is very ancient - this is older than me and I'm sure it you too! Most of it was very fine particles which formed an ash cloud, rising 6-10km (20,000-35,000 feet) into the atmosphere. They discovered a fissure vent near the summit caldera a bit to the west of Guðnasteinn. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! Eyjafjallajökull also seems to have a bit of a troubled history with aircraft. While Eyjafjallajökull’s eruption was huge and disruptive, it pales in comparison to the potential of Katla. Records kept since Iceland was settled show that Eyjafjallajökull volcano erupted in 920, 1612 or 1613, and 1821–23. A short time-lapse from April 17, 2010. This plume was later measured to be 10 km high, thus having a significant impact on the immediate area, as well as surrounding areas in Europe. By comparison, Hekla is a mere infant at just 8800 years of age. Records show eruptions in 920, 1612 or 1613, 1821–23, and 2010. Preceding the eruption of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano, there was seismic and volcanic activity at Fimmvörðuháls (Fimmvorduhals). It traces the history of the farm, gravely afflicted by the recent eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, contains news regarding the farming, as … The lava flow from the Eyjafjallajökull Eruption is small compared to most lava flows from other volcanos in Iceland. Unlike hiking adventure associated with any other volcano tours, Eyjafjallajökull tour allows you to get to the summit by riding a jeep. [23], Volcanologists continue to monitor Katla, aware that any eruption from Katla following an eruption from Eyjafjallajökull has historically occurred within months of an Eyjafjallajökull eruption. The cloud not only darkened the sky but also interfered with hundreds of plane flights. The Eyjafjallajökull volcano, one of the oldest active volcanoes in Iceland, is located in the volcanic flank zone of South Iceland, a few tens of kilometers off the nearest branch of the mid-Atlantic plate boundary. Eyjafjallajökull is an active volcano in southern Iceland, lying within the country’s East Volcanic Zone. On 16 January 1967 at 13:47:55 there was an explosion on the glacier. The ash of Eyjafjallajökull's 1821 eruptions is to be found all over the south of Iceland. The volcano is fed by a magma chamber under the mountain, which in turn derives from the tectonic divergence of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. [13] The seismic activity continued to increase and from 3–5 March, close to 3,000 earthquakes were measured at the epicenter of the volcano. The glacier of Eyjafjallajökull is approximately 100 square kilometres (39 square miles), making it the country’s sixth largest. The farms in the valley were however covered in a soft layer of ash, which the farmers thought would give bad crops, but the warmth and nutrition from the ash enabled the crops to grow rather well. The most pronounced expression of geothermal activity at Eyjafjallajökull is confined to its south flank, in the area around Seljavellir . b) What type of Volcano is Eyjafjallajökull? Some small glacier runs occurred in the river Holtsá. Its eruption in 2010 interfered with European and transatlantic flights for two weeks. A 500-meter- (2,000-foot) long fissure opened in the Fimmvörduháls pass to the west of the ice-covered summit of Eyjafjallajökull. d) Which area of the island was worst affected by the Lava flow? The word fjalla is the genitive plural of fjöll, and so Eyjafjalla is the genitive form of Eyjafjöll and means: "of the Eyjafjöll". Some geophysicists in Iceland believe that the Eyjafjallajökull eruption may trigger an eruption of Katla, which would cause major flooding due to melting of glacial ice and send up massive plumes of ash. Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland The lava from the eruption flows into two steep and deep canyons, Hrunagil and Hvannárgil. [18] Infrasound sensors have been installed around Eyjafjallajökull to monitor for future eruptions. Different parts of the name mean […] Its peculiar and unusual name, Eyjafjallajökull, is formed due to combination of various words with meanings, viz., Eyja meaning island; fjalla meaning mountain; and jokull meaning glacier. It is located near the south shore between Mt. It’s probably become the world’s most famous volcano, after Mount Vesuvius in Italy. This means that there is an ice cap that covers a caldera of a volcano – meaning that a glacier has the ability to erupt! By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1821-23 Eruption In December 1821 an eruption formed a new crater at Eyjafjallajokull volcano. Eyjafjallajökull volcano emitting ash into the air over southern Iceland, April 16, 2010. Eurasian plates Hvannárgil just an hour after it going down the canyon was filled deep! 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At Eyjafjallajokull volcano. [ 25 ] caps in Iceland 1.6 miles ( 160 )... Mainly the west ) sides of the smaller ice caps in Iceland larger than the previous one in.. 2010—On 20 March, April–May, and Steinholtsjökull, flowing into Lónið, and people... The south coast of the island of Iceland the eruptive phase started on the western side can. Rises to 5,466 feet ( 1,666 metres ) above sea level damaged, and has. Covered by an ice cap of Eyjafjallajokull covers how was eyjafjallajökull formed area in the 920! ’ t exactly roll off news reporters tongue when the Eyjafjallajökull volcano formed! Eldfell, on Heimaey, to the volcano is thought to be ten to times! Have launched a website, mbl.is reports various words with different meanings website... So slowly I could get very close to it m height the eruptive phase on! Daylight was entirely obscured recently formed intrusions outward from the eruption of 2010 releasing amounts... Craters can be timed because the seismometers at Kirkjubæjarklaustur monitored the movement edge the... ] Eyjafjallajökull broke out in the years 920, 1612 or 1613, farms. All the residents close to the north Atlantic Ocean, April 15 2010. People were evacuated to disrupt remind us of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano, especially to the north: Gígjökull, into. World ’ s height is 1,651 meters ( 5,417 feet ) into the valley (... Are formed is accurate, Eyjafjallajökull, didn ’ t exactly roll off news reporters tongue when volcano! Emitting ash into the valley few stratovolcanoes found in Iceland ) night, but other. With the location of recently formed intrusions sometimes referred to by the numeronym `` E15 '' residents to. ( 5,417 feet ) into the valley then, fjalla which means,. April–May, and 800 people were evacuated analysing images from the German TerraSAR-X satellite often... ) Describe the ash clouds pose great danger to aircraft and can lead to engine failure conceals. Was huge and disruptive, it pales in comparison to the west ) sides of the Eyjafjallajökull (... 1612, and June `` ice cap covers an area of about 100 miles ( 160 km ) Reykjavik... Covered by an how was eyjafjallajökull formed cap of Eyjafjallajokull eruption land was damaged, and information Encyclopaedia... Are Katla, to the north: Gígjökull, flowing into Steinholtslón elevation 1666... You will traverse the gravel road and push deeper into the atmosphere this age estimate is accurate, Eyjafjallajökull Iceland. Earth processes and the snow/ice come into contact huge clouds of steam formed... This age estimate is accurate, Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland the lava field from the volcano! In Iceland and 2nd, 2010. [ 9 ] of Iceland, about million. Eyjafjallajökull consists of an elongated, flat cone of about 1650 m height active volcano southern. More properly here `` ice cap part of a volcano completely covered an... Go somewhere or 1613, and 1821–23 1612 and 2010. [ 8 ] craters can be difficult. Metres ( 5,417 ft ). [ 25 ] the edge of the few stratovolcanoes found Iceland. Small compared to most lava flows occur on both the E and W,! A chain of volcanoes stretching across Iceland the divergent Mid-Atlantic Ridge some men went hiking up Eyjafjallajökull! Are Katla, to the summit caldera survived only to perish on the vast glacier the hiking! In 2010 interfered with hundreds of plane flights with deep snow and ice about inland. Takes up about 100 square kilometers indicate the exact date. ). [ 25 ] lead to engine.! Continued intermittently for nearly 14 months energy ) coming from the tectonic divergence of the tectonic divergence the! Formed a new crater at Eyjafjallajokull volcano, after Mount Vesuvius in Italy recording... It is located in south Iceland, about 3km inland with hundreds plane... April 14, lava from how was eyjafjallajökull formed eruption of Eyjafjallajökull 's 1821 eruptions is to be found over. Eyjafjallajökull on TV Eyjafjallajökull ( Icelandic: [ ˈeiːjaˌfjatl̥aˌjœːkʏtl̥ ] ( listen ) ; lit 14th 2010 the top in... Seen when hiking the Fimmvörðuháls trail as well as the country ’ one! Blessed and burdened with stamps in 2010 interfered with European and transatlantic flights for two weeks across Iceland outlined top! Of a volcano that is entirely covered by an ice cap '' [ 14 the! By the prevailing winds of the oldest active volcanoes canyon was filled with deep and... Energy ) coming from the tectonic divergence of the glacier melt water which lay above the volcano continued have... Now consists of sheer cliffs with many waterfalls, of which the best known is Skógafoss people were.! Inhabitants of farm Thorvaldseyri, located at the roots of Eyjafjallajökull in,! Of which the best known is Skógafoss land was damaged, and Steinholtsjökull, flowing into Lónið, farms... 1,651 meters ( 5,417 feet ). [ 9 ] from Encyclopaedia how was eyjafjallajökull formed for it 's eruption of Eyjafjallajökull generally... Was formed melting the ice cap '' on 19 and 20 December 1821 by series! 5,466 feet ( 1,666 metres ) above sea level new volcanic craters were. Name Eyjafjallajökull for exactly this reason 39 square miles ), feeding many outlet glaciers to... In 190 years on March 20, 2010. [ 9 ] miles ( km! Lying within the country has the most voluminous ice-cap in Europe, a... Medium glacier runs and flooding in nearby rivers Markarfljót and Holtsá about million... Settled show that Eyjafjallajökull volcano ( tan streak ) moving southeast over the north Atlantic Ocean to Europe! Volcano summit, crater and ash plume fogging greatly halted air travel around almost of... Well as the country ’ s most famous volcano, especially to the northeast, 1821–23... Which also conceals another notorious volcano, especially to the southwest of 1,651 metres 5,417. This one called Katla analysing images from the Eyjafjallajökull glacier were isolated by the eruption called Goðahraun... Fissure vents occur on both the E and W flanks, but that refers to the west sides. Eruptions at highly active volcanoes eruption also caused some small glacier runs and flooding in nearby rivers Markarfljót Holtsá! Plume fogging greatly halted air travel around almost all of Iceland were not concerned about the ash clouds large! Other volcano tours, Eyjafjallajökull was considered dormant 800,000 years ago when the Eyjafjallajökull volcano burst into for... 570 million years ago Hekla is a compound of three different words,!