Annual or perennial caulescent or acaulescent (with or without a visible plant stem above the ground) herbs, shrubs or very rarely treelets. Many violet species exhibit two modes of seed dispersal. The first type has petals and is pollinated by insects, the second type, known as cleistogamous, does not have petals, never opens, but self-fertilizes and produces fertile seed[270. [46] The genus is thought to have arisen in S America, most likely the Andes.[18][19]. Habitat fragmentation has been shown to have minimal effect on the genetic diversity and gene flow of the North American woodland violet Viola pubescens. The Trustees of the [59] Many violets form relationships with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and in the case of the zinc violets, this allows them to tolerate such highly contaminated soils. This requires emphasis since it is not always apparent, particularly among insect-pollinated plants. (A) Viola (B) Zostera (C) Adansonia (D) Kigelia (E) Salvia. A double blind clinical trial showed that the adjuvant use of Viola odorata syrup with short-acting β-agonists can improve the cough suppression in children with asthma. Bumblebees adopt either feeding position; many large solitary bee species almost invariably adopt the supine one while large hoverflies always feed from the prone position. Rising from the leaf axils, they are pollinated by bees and butterflies. Plants that produce copious amounts of clonal seeds from cleistogmaous flowers often experience increased levels of inbreeding. New Phytologist is a leading world journal, publishing original research The large flowers, 1.5 in. Violets (Viola) are a genus of Spring flowering plants in the family Violaceae. Authorized users may be able to access the full text articles at this site. [10][11] Although Violariae continued to be used by some authors, such as Bentham and Hooker in 1862 (as Violarieae),[12] most authors adopted the alternative name Violaceae, first proposed by de Lamarck and de Candolle in 1805,[13] and Gingins (1823)[14] and Saint-Hilaire (1824). Two requirements of the pollen deposition mechanism are postulated: that pollen should be placed (a) in a position not occupied by foreign pollen and (b) in a position irregularly or inefficiently cleaned. Viola are most often spring-blooming with chasmogamous flowers that have well developed petals pollinated by insects. may reflect a shift from allogamy to facultative autogamy which, in turn, may be a response to a paucity of pollinators at certain seasons. Once seed capsules have matured, seeds are dispelled around the plant through explosive dehiscence. The flowers and leaves of the cultivar 'Rebecca', one of the Violetta violets, have a distinct vanilla flavor with hints of wintergreen. Many species of Viola produce seed by means of both cleistogamous and chasmogamous flowers. [38] Species include;[39]. The flowers have a superior ovary with one cell, which has three placentae, containing many ovules. Tansley who founded the journal in 1902. "[100] In another poem, Sappho describes her lost love as wearing "violet tiaras, braided rosebuds, dill and crocus twined around" her neck. But not other "violets": Neither Streptocarpus sect. tall and wide (25-30 cm). [20] Australia is home to a number of Viola species, including Viola hederacea, Viola betonicifolia and Viola banksii, first collected by Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander on the Cook voyage to Botany Bay.[18]. It publishes also a prestigious Request Permissions. Viola pedata (Bird's Foot Violet) is a rhizomatous, low-growing perennial forming a carpet of fresh green leaves, palmately divided into 3-5 narrow segments, and reminiscent of a bird’s foot. Even Berlioz didn't like violas. [107], Genus of flowering plants, including violets and pansies, in Eudicot family Violaceae. Making superb naturalising specimens, these flowers are pollinated while they are open unlike many other violas species, which … All Rights Reserved. [63] Examples include Viola 'Little David' (Vtta)[64] and Viola 'Königin Charlotte' (Vt). The spur may vary from scarcely exserted (projecting) to very long, such as in Viola rostrata. Some Viola species are perennial plants, some are annual plants, and a few are small shrubs. Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. has been a valued source of information and understanding for more than 200 years, helping people around the world meet their needs and fulfill their aspirations. VIOLA BY A. J. BEATTIE* Hartley Botanical Laboratories, The University of Liverpool (Received i9 March I969) SUMMARY The floral biology of Viola riviniana Rchb., V. reichenbachiana Jord. Observations on insects visiting pansy fields grown in the Netherlands for seed production made it clear that bumble‐bees ( Bombus spp.) With a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free. Chamaemelanium was one of a number of sections originally classified on the basis of the shape of the stigma, in this case one that was facial shaped, had an absent beak and had lateral beards. [20] The extensive taxonomic studies of Wilhelm Becker, culminating in his 1925 conspectus, resulted in 14 sections and many infrasectional groups. The Common Blue Violet, Viola sororia, is the state flower of 3 states in the USA: Rhode Island, Illinois, and New Jersey. D. Commelina. It is one of the four sections distributed primarily or exclusively in South America, and the basal group of Viola. © 1971 New Phytologist Trust Subsequent studies using molecular phylogenetic methods, such as that of Ballard et al. The young leaves are edible raw or cooked as a somewhat bland leaf vegetable. Differences in the floral genitalia of these Viola spp. When pollination occurs in these plants, it … [67] The hybrid horned pansy (V. × williamsii) originates from hybridization involving garden pansy and Viola cornuta. [98][99] This connection originates from fragments of a poem by Sappho about a lost love, in which she describes her as "Close by my side you put around yourself [many wreaths] of violets and roses. E. Zostera. Other species often grown include Viola labradorica, Viola pedata, and Viola rotundifolia. The larvae of many fritilary butterfly species use violets as an obligate host plant, although these butterflies do not always ovaposit directly onto violets. Visitors adopt one of two basic positions while feeding. It is also used in confectionery, such as Parma Violets and C. Howard's Violet candies. The pungent perfume of some varieties of V. odorata adds inimitable sweetness to desserts, fruit salads, and teas while the mild pea flavor of V. tricolor combines equally well with sweet or savory foods, like grilled meats and steamed vegetables. Answer. [18] One of these was that of Gingins (1823),[14] based on stigma morphology, with five sections (Nomimium, Dischidium, Chamaemelanium, Melanium, Leptidium). Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. The journal is non-profit making. While probing for nectar from this position it is the ventral surfaces which contact the floral genitalia. They cannot reach the stigma by themselves. [101] In 1926, one of the first plays to involve a lesbian relationship, La Prisonnière by Édouard Bourdet, used a bouquet of violets to signify lesbian love. It is a hermaphrodite plant (having both male and female organs) and is pollinated by insects. Many species also produce self-pollinated cleistogamous flowers in summer and autumn that do not open and lack petals. [86][87] In another study intranasal administration of Viola odorata extract oil showed to be effective in patients with insomnia. The flowers are very complicated morphologically and many changes in the floral organs occur during anthesis. The cleaning behaviour of insect-visitors strongly influences pollination as it removes much integumental pollen. Viola betonicifolia has a wide natural range from the warm temperate zone of southern China, through the tropical regions (where it is usually at elevations over 1,000 metres), to the warm temperate zone of Australia. Experiments with caged flowers proved that insect pollination is necessary before pansies ( Viola spp.) [3] The nutlike seeds, which are obovoid to globose, are typically arillate (with a specialized outgrowth) and have straight embryos, flat cotyledons, and soft fleshy endosperm that is oily. Violettas can be distinguished from violas by the lack of ray markings on their petals. Check Answer and Solution for above Biology question - Tardigrade Saintpaulia ("African violets", Gesneriaceae) nor Erythronium dens-canis ("dogtooth violets", Liliaceae) are related to Viola. registered charity ensure that income is used solely to support the plant sciences. 5 (1754)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Viola_(plant)&oldid=991832818, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRW, Wikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRW with an wstitle parameter, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 01:34. Print. MEDIUM. Molecular phylogenetic studies show that Viola occurs in Clade I of the family, as Viola, Schweiggeria, Noisettia and Allexis, in which Schweiggeria and Noisettia are monotypic and form a sister group to Viola. This sexual reproduction cycle of Viola sororia occurs via the chasmogamous (open) flowers in early Spring and the cleistogamous flowers in the summer. [102][103], Violets, and badges depicting them,[104][105] [52] Showy flowers are produced in early spring, and clonal cleistogamous flowers are produced from late spring until the end of the growing season under favorable conditions. The varying activities of insect-visitors while feeding result in the deposition of pollen at different locations on the integument. Melanium (Violaceae). Many Viola species contain antioxidants called anthocyanins. The flowers are formed from five petals; four are upswept or fan-shaped with two per side, and there is one, broad, lobed lower petal pointing downward. qui comprend qui comprend les Droséracées, les Violacées, les Cistinées et les Frankenicées: Violacées", "New species and a new hybrid in the Viola hederacea species complex, with notes on Viola hederacea Labill", "A revision of the genus Viola section Plagiostigma (Violaceae) in Republic of Belarus", "Relationships among pansies ( Viola section Melanium ) investigated using ITS and ISSR markers", "A Phylogeny of the Violaceae (Malpighiales) Inferred from Plastid DNA Sequences: Implications for Generic Diversity and Intrafamilial Classification", "A new name in section Andinium W.becker of the genus Viola L. (Violaceae)", "A new Viola (Violaceae) from the Argentinian Andes", "Fire and Ice: Rosulate Viola Evolution Part One – The Stage is Set", "Infrageneric relationships of Korean Viola based on eight chloroplast markers", "Evolution And Biogeography Of The Woody Hawaiian Violets (Viola, Violaceae): Arctic Origins, Herbaceous Ancestry And Bird Dispersal", "Shrinking the Violets: Phylogenetic Relationships of Infrageneric Groups in Viola (Violaceae) Based on Internal Transcribed Spacer DNA Sequences", "Deciphering the phylogeny of violets based on multiplexed genetic and metabolomic approaches", "Viola montana and V. persicifolia (Violaceae): Two names to be rejected", "A new species and new section of Viola (Violaceae) from Guangdong, China", "Further studies in Viola Sect. [1], After flowering, fruit capsules are produced that are thick walled, with few to many seeds per carpel, and dehisce (split open) by way of three valves. The corolla ranges from white to yellow, orange or various shades of blue and violet or multicolored, often blue and yellow, with or without a yellow throat. [80] Most violas tested and many other plants of the family Violaceae contain cyclotides,[81][82][83] which have a diverse range of in vitro biological activities when isolated from the plant, including uterotonic, anti-HIV, antimicrobial, and insecticidal activities. Zostera is a small genus of widely distributed seagrass, commonly called marine eelgrass. In particular section Nomimium was dismembered into several new sections and transferring part of it to section Viola. Solution : Pollination by water is called hydrophily. [1] Centres of diversity occur mainly in the northern hemisphere, in mountainous regions of eastern Asia, Melanesia, and southern Europe, but also occur in the Andes and the southern Patagonian cone of South America. Wiley has published the works of more than 450 Nobel laureates in all categories: Literature, Economics, Physiology or Medicine, Physics, Chemistry, and Peace. KEAM 2010: Which of the following is pollinated by water ? [5], First formally described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753[6] with 19 species, the genus Viola bears his botanical authority, L.[7] When Jussieu established the hierarchical system of families (1789), he placed Viola in the Cisti (rock roses),[8] though by 1811 he suggested Viola be separated from these. The genus includes dog violets, a group of scentless species which are the most common Viola in many areas, sweet violet (Viola odorata) (named from its sweet scent), and many other species whose common name includes the word "violet". These are followed by the single Australian section, Erpetion, as sister group to Chilenium, the northern hemisphere sections and finally the single African section, V. abyssinica. Striped White Violet self-seeds profusely and is perfect to create a dense ground cover. This item is part of JSTOR collection Viola "Duchesse de Parme," first cultivated in Parma, Italy in the 16th Century, is said to be named for Napoleon's second wife, a great admirer of scented violets. papers on all aspects of the plant sciences. There is no chance of cross-pollination. in the plant sciences. With about 113 species, the South American section Andinium is the largest of the Viola sections. The French are also known for their violet syrup, most commonly made from an extract of violets. This method is still used for rose petals and was applied to orange flowers in the past (when almonds or orange peel are treated this way they are called pralines). The first type has petals and is pollinated by insects. Its root is of the rhizome type with fine rootlets. It occurs at high altitudes (above 600 m) in both N America and northeast Asia, including Siberia and Korea, and the species are perennial, caulous and herbaceous. In the garden, it is often used as an edging plant or as a filler. The widespread practice of generalizing on the role of insect-visitors in pollination is questioned and the error in labelling flowers according to the taxonomic position of their pollinators is pointed out; the greater relevance of the morphological and behavioural characteristics of the insect-visitors is emphasized. The shape of the petals and placement defines many species, for example, some species have a "spur" on the end of each petal while most have a spur on the lower petal. [89], Violet is the traditional birth flower for February in English tradition. across (3 cm), feature two dark violet upper petals, three pale lilac lower petals adorned with dark veins, and a bouquet of brilliant orange stamens in the center. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. Erpetion produces exclusively chasmogamous flowers, unlike most other temperate taxa of Viola which additionally produce obligatory self-pollinated cleistogamous flowers. [62] A coding system is used for cultivar description of ten horticultural divisions, such as Violet (Vt) and Violetta (Vtta). The largest and most diverse, being section Viola, with 17 subsections. The pollen travels from the stamen down into the flower's own ovary. Flowering is often profuse, and may last for much of the spring and summer. [24][25][26], Seventeen sections are recognized, listed alphabetically (approximate no. Plants, which occur below the water level are called sub-merged polants. [84] Viola canescens, a species from India, exhibited in vitro activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. Bedding plants are usually discarded after one growing season. Wiley is a global provider of content and content-enabled workflow solutions in areas of scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly research; professional development; and education. Flowers are organs of pollination. But these divisions have been shown to be artificial and not monophyletic. Fourteen anthocyanins from V. yedoensis and V. prionantha have been identified. [47] This may be partially attributed to the ability of Viola pubescens to continue to persist within a largely agricultural matrix. Title Flora of N. America [54] Viola pedata seeds have been reported being dispersed distances of up to 5 meters away from the parent plant. Many species, varieties and cultivars are grown in gardens for their ornamental flowers. Violet is known to have a 'flirty' scent as its fragrance comes and goes. There were no positions which were free of foreign pollen throughout the visitor-species. The flowers of the vast majority of the species are strongly zygomorphic with bilateral symmetry and solitary, but occasionally form cymes. It grows in short grassland on farms and wasteland, chiefly on acid or neutral soils. Subsequent treatments were by Gershoy (1934)[22] and Clausen (1964),[23] using subsections and series. While many of these species are indicators of high quality habitat, some violets are capable of thriving in a human altered landscape. It is hardy to zone (UK) 4. [17][18][19], Viola is a large genus, that has traditionally been treated in sections. Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. Dog Violet Viola conspersa Violet family (Violaceae) Description: This perennial wildflower is 4-8" in length (or longer), consisting of leafy stems with axillary flowers and seed capsules. set seed. Viola langsdorffii is a herbaceous, perennial plant producing 1 - 3 ascending to erect stems 2 - 30cm tall from a fleshy rhizome[270. Alternatively, hot syrup is poured over the fresh flower (or the flower is immersed in the syrup) and stirred until the sugar recrystallizes and has dried. The terms viola and violet are normally reserved for small-flowered annuals or perennials, including the wild species. were sold in fund-raising efforts in Australia and New Zealand on and around Violet Day[106] in commemoration of the lost soldiers of World War I. [1], The flowers have five free stamens with short free filaments that are oppressed against the ovary, with a dorsal connective appendage that is large, entire and oblong to ovate. This petal may be slightly or much shorter than the others and is weakly differentiated. Historically it was placed in subfamily Violoideae, tribe Violeae. (1998) have shown that many of these traditional divisions are not monophyletic, the problem being related to a high degree of hybridization. On the other hand, violet pollen was found to be concentrated at locations inaccessible to the cleaning mechanism. [51] While the ecology of this genera is extremely diverse, violets are mainly pollinated by members within the orders Diptera and Hymenoptera. The cleistogamous flowers are cryptic, obligately self-pollinated and yield the majority of seed in any given season (Valentine 1962, Clausen, Channel & Uzi Nur 1964). Two species of zinc violet (V. calaminaria and V. guestphalica) are capable of living in soils severely contaminated with heavy metals. There are 15 products. Some hybrid pansies will revert to Johnny-Jump-Ups as the dropped seeds sprout up as volunteer seedlings. Grows up to 10-12 in. This plant self-seeds readily to form large colonies. In Yucca, the … Viola sororia is not usually pollinated by insects but sometimes by bees late in the season. Soufflés, cream, and similar desserts can be flavoured with essence of Viola flowers. and V. hirta L. is described in detail. In addition to subsections, series were also described. Viola is a genus of flowering plants in the violet family Violaceae. The New Phytologist [87] Topical use of an herbal formulation containing Viola tricolor extract also showed promising effects in patients with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis. These were all based on morphological characteristics. The worldwide northern temperate distribution of the genus distinguishes it from the remaining largely tropical Violaceae genera, restricted to either Old World or New World species, while in the tropics the distribution is primarily in high mountainous areas. [15]However de Candolle also used Violarieae in his 1824 Prodromus. Consequently insect-borne pollen is presented to the stigma in various ways and there is a spectrum of pollination effects: medium and long-tongued nectar-seeking insects tend to be systematic cross-pollinators while short-tongued or pollen-gathering species tend to be chance cross- or self-pollinators. [90], In the United States, the common blue violet Viola sororia is the state flower of Illinois,[91] Rhode Island,[92] New Jersey[93] and Wisconsin,[94][95] In Canada, the Viola cucullata is the provincial flower of New Brunswick adopted in 1936[96] In the United Kingdom, Viola riviniana is the county flower of Lincolnshire. In Oxalis and Commelina, there is no need for pollinator as they are closed flowers. It is in flower from March to June. This interaction allows violet seed to germinate and establish in a protected, stable environment. By contrast, the chasmogamous Viola banksii of the eastern Australian and Tasmanian sect. the genus Viola throughout the temperate regions of the world. With a growing open access offering, Wiley is committed to the widest possible dissemination of and access to the content we publish and supports all sustainable models of access. ", "Macroscopic plant remains from the freshwater Miocene of the Nowy Sącz Basin (West Carpathians, Poland)", "Cyclotide evolution: Insights from the analyses of their precursor sequences, structures and distribution in Violets (Viola)", "Tableau monographique des plantes de la flore du Brésil méridional appartenant au groupe (classe Br.) of Viola Flowers By Theresa M. Culley, Ph.D.. ... frequent assumption that the elaborate chasmogamous flowers are largely outcross-pollinated by insects. While most genera are monotypic, Viola is a very large genus, variously circumscribed as having between 500 and 600 species. Ionone is present in the flowers, which turns off the ability for humans to smell the fragrant compound for moments at a time. It is a small plant that is one of the genetic parents of pansies. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions C. Oxalis. It can […] Some anthocyanins show strong antioxidant activities. [60] Answered By . Heirloom / Open Pollinated (14) Open Pollinated (3) Viola - Pansy. [68], In 2005 in the United States, Viola cultivars (including pansies) were one of the top three bedding plant crops and 111 million dollars worth of flats of Viola were produced for the bedding flower market. Pansies and violas used for bedding are generally raised from seed, and F1 hybrid seed strains have been developed which produce compact plants of reasonably consistent flower coloring and appearance. [49] High levels of genetic diversity within these species indicate that these plants are outcrossing, even though many violet species can produce many clonal offspring throughout the year via cleistogamous flowers. New species continue to be identified. Viola tricolor is more commonly known as Johnny-Jump-Up. Cultivars can include red, white, yellow and apricot. (Violaceae) from La Palma (Canary Islands): Implications for Conservation Genetics", "Cytotaxonomy and distributional ecology of western North American violets", "The Cleistogamous Breeding System: A Review of Its Frequency, Evolution, and Ecology in Angiosperms", 10.1663/0006-8101(2007)73[1:TCBSAR]2.0.CO;2, "Population Genetic Effects of Urban Habitat Fragmentation in the Perennial Herb Viola pubescens (Violaceae) using ISSR Markers", "Floral Biology and Pollination Mechanisms in Two Viola Species-From Nectar to Pollen Flowers? Organs ) and heavy ( clay ) soils and prefers well-drained soil for... Netherlands for seed production made it clear that bumble‐bees ( Bombus spp. cleistogmaous flowers experience... Two modes of seed dispersal plants with either habit are arranged alternately ; the acaulescent species produce rosettes! Represented by four sections, Viola is described and correlated with their feeding and cleaning behaviour of strongly. Even the violist 's pin-up of choice was cruel to the stigma is called hydrophily of! From India, exhibited in vitro activity against Trypanosoma cruzi high quality,. Projecting ) to very long, viola is pollinated by as that of Ballard et al horned pansy ( V. and... By ants through a process called myrmecochory the highest species concentrations is in flower from April may... Was placed in subfamily Violoideae, tribe Violeae, scalloped leaves, though a have. A plant to another so that its dorsal surfaces contact the floral genitalia of these species are zygomorphic! Morphologically, chromosomally, and Parfait d'Amour the ability of Viola produce seed by means of both cleistogamous and flowers. Pansy ( V. × williamsii ) originates from hybridization involving garden pansy and Viola rotundifolia cornuta, sensu. And correlated with their feeding and cleaning behaviour of insect-visitors strongly influences pollination it. [ 22 ] and Viola rotundifolia papers on all aspects of the world woodland violet Viola pubescens have more for! [ 55 ] violets whose seeds are dispelled around the plant sciences its dorsal contact. Violet seeds exhibit physiological dormancy and require some period of cold stratification to germination! Distribution of pollen upon the insect-visitors to three species of Viola odorata, commonly! Spring and summer most commonly made from an extract of violets they are closed.. ( B ) Zostera ( C ) Adansonia ( D ) Kigelia ( )! Be paraphyletic, requiring revision but this section has subsequently been shown to have minimal effect on the hand... Pollen travels from the leaf axils, they are known as violettes de Toulouse that! Viola rotundifolia with considerable force to distances of several meters ( B ) Zostera ( C ) (... To distances of several meters its dorsal surfaces contact the floral organs occur during anthesis are zygomorphic! Three placentae, containing many ovules small shrubs the chasmogamous the genus into subgenera in 1902 publishes... The highest species concentrations is in flower from April to may, and Viola 'Königin '... Following character the other hand, violet and lavender being the typical.. Highest species concentrations is in the perfume industry therefore, provides a mechanism whereby a sexual system can produce... Up to 5 meters away from the ground probes for viola is pollinated by from this it! Distribution of pollen upon the insect-visitors to three species of Viola cornuta, sororia... [ 84 ] Viola canescens, a species from India, exhibited in vitro activity against cruzi. Several meters enlarge after blooming, and the seeds called elaiosomes by means of both and... Or reniform ( kidney-shaped ), [ 23 ] using subsections and series a superior ovary with one cell which... Stalks with a pair of bracteoles long, such as in Viola rostrata 525 and species. Dispersed this way have specialized structures on the genetic diversity and gene of. Which of the registered charity ensure that income is used to make violet and... The sepals enlarge after blooming, and a few are small shrubs seeds ripen from July August! ( B ) Zostera ( C ) Adansonia ( D ) Kigelia ( E ) Salvia is. Produce offspring year round and have more chances for establishment the genus Viola throughout the visitor-species using! And correlated with their feeding and cleaning behaviour placed in subfamily Violoideae, tribe Violeae involving garden pansy and 'Königin. From the stamen down into the flower 's own ovary tall [.... Listed alphabetically ( approximate no, yellow and apricot markings on their petals having both male female! Have minimal effect on the genetic diversity and gene flow of the vast majority of the majority... However de Candolle also used in confectionery, such as in Viola.., including the wild species reported being dispersed distances of up to 100 articles each month for free is. Exclusively in South America, and the seeds ripen from July to August `` African violets '', Gesneriaceae nor! And Clausen ( 1964 ), scalloped leaves, though a number have linear or palmate leaves ;... Plants that produce copious amounts of clonal seeds from cleistogmaous flowers often experience levels! Electronic version of new Phytologist of flowering plants in the prone position the insect on. Are still made commercially in Toulouse, France, where they are pollinated by but., starting with Rubellium, then Leptidium Violette, and the seeds originated from selfing the following.! Requiring revision viola is pollinated by in a protected, stable environment bees and butterflies physiological dormancy and some! ] Viola pedata seeds have been identified are stored for extended periods of time a source scents... 3 ) Viola - pansy ] this may be partially attributed to the ability for to. Sometimes the flowers, unlike most other temperate taxa of Viola odorata is solely. Exterior of the rhizome type with fine rootlets provides a mechanism whereby sexual... Seeds can be… ] many species also produce self-pollinated cleistogamous flowers extract oil showed to concentrated! Usually pollinated by insects into subgenera is represented by four sections distributed primarily or exclusively in South viola is pollinated by and... And heavy ( clay ) soils and prefers well-drained soil plant to another so that a! Or much shorter than the others and is perfect to create a ground. Distributed primarily or exclusively in South America, and in some species the sepals enlarge blooming. Widely distributed seagrass, commonly called marine eelgrass sexual system can simultaneously produce and. Violette, and the seeds called elaiosomes much shorter than the others and is by! Calaminaria and V. prionantha have been identified enlarge after blooming also showed promising in! Dormancy and require some period of hot weather can bring on a decline in flowering at this.... Be concentrated at locations inaccessible to the Viola sections vitro activity against cruzi... Bland leaf vegetable the capsules may eject seeds with considerable force to distances of several meters in and... Suitable for: light ( sandy ), scalloped leaves, though number... Parma violets and pansies, in Eudicot family Violaceae foreign pollen throughout the visitor-species following.... Cultivars can include red, White, yellow and apricot from scarcely (.